Emulators Part 3
Archive-name: apple2/emulators-faq/part3 URL: http://purl.org/net/Apple2 Posting-Frequency: monthly Version: 1.3.7 Part: 1/4
*************************************************************************** * * * Apple ][ Emulator Resources Guide * * version 1.3.7 * * * * (c) 1995-1998 Alex Maddison * * <firstname.lastname@example.org> * * * * Corrections and constructive criticism welcome. * * * * Last updated: April 1998 * * * * Newsgroups: comp.emulators.apple2, alt.emulators.ibmpc.apple2, *.answers* * Posted: First week of each month or on demand. * * * * http://purl.org/net/Apple2 * * ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/apple2/emulators-faq/part1 * * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/apple2/emulators-faq/part1/ * * http://www.cs.ruu.nl/wais/html/na-dir/apple2/emulators-faq/part1.html * * * ***************************************************************************
- 1 Disk-Image Formats & Conversion
- 2 Distribution Disk-Images
- 3 Working With Disk-Images
- 4 Apple DOS/ProDOS Commands
- 5 Further Reading
Disk-Image Formats & Conversion
There are four main types of cross-platform disk-images. The most common types - DO and PO (*.DSK), Nibble (*.NIB) and 2IMG (*.2MG) - will be found on emulator FTP sites. The first three types are primarily intended for transferring 8-bit Apple software on 5.25" disk. The IIgs emulator XGS uses the 2IMG universal format (which may be easily converted to/from 800K DiskCopy images). The other types are proprietary formats required by a specific emulator, or created by a certain method of conversion. Since these types are unlikely to be found on FTP sites, they are included for completeness. In these cases, more information on the proprietary types can be found in the documentation of the specific emulator package they are designed for. There are a couple of disk-image types which have not been listed here - these are generally "raw" disk-image formats as noted in Section 2 - and these types are not capable of conversion into standard disk-images. "Raw" disk-images of 5.25" disks will generally be 200-220K in size.
THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS APPLY TO UNCOMPRESSED DISK-IMAGE FILES ONLY!
Disk-images with extensions such as *.gz, *.Z or *.zip are in compressed format and must be extracted by the appropriate program prior to use. Disk- images CAN be copied between platforms and they WILL work with a variety of emulators. If in doubt ALWAYS ensure BINARY translation between platforms!
File Extension (DO/*.DSK) - This image is 143360 bytes in size (143488 with MacBinary header). It usually has the *.DSK extension, but may also be found with the *.DO extension as well. As suggested by the title, data is stored track by track and sector by sector (Track 0, Sector 0 -> Track 22, Sector 15) for a standard 1:1 copy of a 35 track, 16 sector DOS 3.3 disk (256 bytes per sector). This is the most widely-used disk-image format for 8-bit emulators, and is easily translated into other formats. This format is incapable of storing copy-protected software unless it has been "cracked" first. A basic guide to determining what type is software may be stored in a DO image is whether it can be first duplicated on an Apple with standard copy utilities such as "copya".
On the MACINTOSH - Unlike the PC, which determines file-types by the extension, the Macintosh adds a "resource header" to all files containing file type and creator information (creating a "forked" file). Files stored on Internet FTP sites, or transferred from a Unix or PC platform, will generally not contain this resource header. As such, the disk-image will not appear as a file usuable by any of the Macintosh emulators. It is a (relatively) simple case to change the File Type and File Creator information to "register" the disk-images to belong to a certain emulator. The relevant disk-image File Type and Creator information is displayed in the reviews of each Macintosh emulator in Section 2. For example, to use this format with Stop The Madness, ensure that the file is downloaded or transferred in binary - not Macbinary - mode (and is 143360 bytes). STM will *NOT* recognize the disk-image unless it has the correct file type/creator, even if it is of the correct size and is a binary file. Set the file type to 'DSK5' and the creator to 'A2EM' using ResEdit, UUlite, etc. Alternatively "Drop?Disk" is a drag-and-drop application which automatically converts the file type and creator of disk-images for use with STM. For the other Macintosh emulators, a useful utility to bulk- change resource information is the "Snitch" extension by Mitch Jones <email@example.com>, which adds resource functionality to the Finder's "Get Info" window. Simply select a number of disk-image files, do a simultaneous "Get Info" command and change the active window's resource information. Then select "Change All" from Snitch's menu.
There are a number of utilities for the Macintosh which modify to and from ProDOS Order disk-images: "Easy.STM Convert.1.0" by Jim Surine <firstname.lastname@example.org>, "Aconv v1.0" by Dan Bornstein and "Converter" will reorder PO disk-image sectors into the DO type used by STM. To re-order the sectors into ProDOS order, use "DOS Order Converter" by Rene Gaudet <email@example.com> or "ProDOS-Order Converter" (the "mapper" algorithm automatically reorders between the two formats).
On the PC - The PC simply determines file-type by extension (although the emulators themselves may do some checking with regard to correct file size). To use this format with all of the PC emulators, ensure that the file is downloaded or transferred in binary mode (and is 143360 bytes) and that it has an eight character filename and *.DSK extension. The current version of Apl2Em requires that the D1 and D2 disk-images have default names (usually SYSTEM.DSK and BLANK.DSK respectively), so you will have to rename your disk-image files to use them. Applewin can actually read *.DSK files of 143488 bytes (MacBinary files with the *BIN extension) but for compatibility with other emulators it is better to translate the files correctly prior to use - see Section 4. No other form of conversion is necessary.
File Extension (PO/*.DSK) - This image is 143360 bytes in size (143488 with MacBinary header). It usually has the *.DSK extension, but may also be found with the *.PO extension as well. This disk-image stores data in block rather than track/sector format (block 0, block 1 -> block 279) - the difference in the structure is due to ProDOS interleaving data in blocks (which equal two DOS sectors). Although newer emulators are capable of distinguishing between DO and PO (and thus using both) older emulators strictly require the DO type despite the identical size. ProDOS Order images are still useful since they are capable of being converted back into SDK images by "Nulib" (which are compatible with ShrinkIt on the Apple). DO images are not capable of this. PO is an older disk-image format (used more widely with Unix emulators, since ShrinkIt archives extracted by "Nulib" produce PO images). Like DO, this format is incapable of storing copy- protected software unless it has been "cracked" first. A basic guide to determining what type is software may be stored in a PO image is whether it can be first duplicated on an Apple with standard copy utilities such as "copya".
On the MACINTOSH - The file must be downloaded in binary mode. None of the Macintosh emulators really use the PO format, except for "][ In a Mac", which uses images of non-standard size. To use this format with "][ In a Mac", drop a DO or Copy II+ 7.1 image file onto "Image Converter" by Lazarus I. Long and select the required format; output images will have the correct resource information. The application "Easy Convert" will re-order the sectors of a PO disk-image into DOS3.3 Order, and will automatically set the file type/creator attributes upon output to 'DSK5'/'A2EM' for use with STM. Alternatively, use "ProDOS-Order Converter".
On the PC - No emulators on the PC require PO images (although newer emulators such as AppleWin support them). Use "Mapper" by Rene Gaudet <firstname.lastname@example.org> to convert DO to PO and vice versa.
Nibble DOS3.3 Order
File Extension (NDO/*.NIB) - This image is 232960 bytes in size, and it usually has the *.NIB extension. According to the original "Apple2 Emulation Frequently Asked Questions" guide, "every three bytes of data have been 'bit twiddled' into four bytes, and each sector has an 'address field' that has the track and sector numbers." The format was originally used solely in the "ApplEmu" emulator before becoming widely used to store copy-protected software. The conversion utilities listed below are solely for use with "ApplEmu" images containing standard software! NDO images rely on the extra space to store non-standard track information which would otherwise be lost in a DO or PO image. With newer emulators such as AppleWin and ApplePC, NDO can be used to store copy-protected or non- standard Apple disk-images (created by SST - see "Super Saltines Transcopy" in Section 5.3).
On the MACINTOSH - There is currently no way to convert either from or to NDO on the Macintosh. NDO images are used by the "Catakig" emulator (File Creator: 'Ctkg', File Type: 'A2D5')
On the PC - To convert PO disk-images to NDO (for use with ApplEmu), use "Em2Emu" by Tom Baker <email@example.com>. To convert NDO back to DO use "Emu2Em" by Dan Scholnik <firstname.lastname@example.org> to re-order this format back into the "standard" 143360 size. AppleEmu can run NDO images containing copy-protected software without conversion. Newer emulators support multiple disk-images types but will support all NDO types containing standard software.
2IMG Universal Format
File Extension (2IMG/*.2MG) - This image is usually 800K in size, and is a proprietary format used by the XGS multi-platform IIgs emulator as well as Bernie ][ The Rescue on the Macintosh. It usually has the *.2MG extension. The size of the image is due to fact it contains a copy of an 800K 3.5" disk (usually ProDOS) rather than a single density 5.25" disk (although these may also be imported into 2IMG format by the utilities below). The format is primarily created by converting a ProDOS 800K disk into a DiskCopy image on a Macintosh, and then using the XGS "Image" utilities by Matthew Conte <email@example.com>, or "Revival" by Thomas Fok <firstname.lastname@example.org>. "Revival" can also convert DOS 3.3 Ordered, ProDOS Ordered, and ApplePC HDV images into 2IMG format. The 2IMG format is explained at:
2MG (or 2IMG) Disk Image Files
These are disk images (e.g. .dsk or .nib) with a prefix which includes information about size, format, sector ordering, volume number, locked/unlocked, etc..
2MG files may also have a Comment and/or extra file information added following the disk image data.
2MG format can accommodate disk images ranging from 5.25" diskette up through hard disk.
Typically, the image files have names ending with ".2mg".
ProDOS File Type- $E0 ProDOS Aux Type- $0130
Emulators which can use 2MG images include Bernie ][ the Rescue, Catakig, Sweet 16, XGS.
On an Apple II, ASIMOV2 (for IIgs) is the usual utility for creating 2MG files and for converting them to disk.
2MG (or 2IMG) Disk Image Format
Part of File Length
Prefix- 64 bytes (usual size of Prefix) Disk Data- varies (e.g. 143,360 for 5.25" disk) Comment (optional)- varies (often not present) Creator added (optional)- varies (often not present)
0000-0003: 32 49 4D 47 "2IMG" ID for 2MG format (ASCII Text) 0004-0007: 58 47 53 21 "XGS!" Creator ID (ASCII Text) ** 0008-0009: 40 00 Header size ($0040= 64 bytes) 000A-000B: 01 00 Version number 000C-000F: 01 00 00 00 Image Format
00= DOS 3.3 sector order 01= ProDOS sector order 02= NIB data
- Note: "Creator" refers to application creating the image.
Here are ID's in use by various applications:
ASIMOV2- "!nfc" Bernie ][ the Rescue- "B2TR" Catakig- "CTKG" Sheppy's ImageMaker- "ShIm" Sweet 16- "WOOF" XGS- "XGS!"
0010-0013: 00 00 00 00 (Flags & DOS 3.3 Volume Number)
The four-byte flags field contains bit flags and data relating to the disk image. Bits not defined should be zero.
31 Locked? If Bit 31 is 1 (set), the disk image is locked. The emulator should allow no changes of disk data-- i.e. the disk should be viewed as write-protected.
8 DOS 3.3 Volume Number? If Bit 8 is 1 (set), then Bits 0-7 specify the DOS 3.3 Volume Number. If Bit 8 is 0 and the image is in DOS 3.3 order (Image Format = 0), then Volume Number will be taken as 254.
7-0 The DOS 3.3 Volume Number, usually 1 through 254, if Bit 8 is 1 (set). Otherwise, these bits should be 0.
0014-0017: 18 01 00 00 (ProDOS Blocks = 280 for 5.25")
The number of 512-byte blocks in the disk image- this value should be zero unless the image format is 1 (ProDOS order). Note: ASIMOV2 sets to $118 whether or not format is ProDOS.
0018-001B: 40 00 00 00 (Offset to disk data = 64 bytes)
Offset to the first byte of disk data in the image file from the beginning of the file- disk data must come before any Comment and Creator-specific chunks.
001C-001F: 00 30 02 00 (Bytes of disk data = 143,360 for 5.25")
Length of the disk data in bytes. (For ProDOS should be 512 x Number of blocks)
0020-0023: 00 00 00 00 (Offset to optional Comment)
Offset to the first byte of the image Comment- zero if there is no Comment. The Comment must come after the data chunk, but before the creator-specific chunk. The Comment, if it exists, should be raw text; no length byte or C-style null terminator byte is required (that's what the next field is for).
0024-0027: 00 00 00 00 (Length of optional Comment)
Length of the Comment chunk- zero if there's no Comment.
0028-002B: 00 00 00 00 (Offset to optional Creator data)
Offset to the first byte of the Creator-specific data chunk-zero if there is none.
002C-002F: 00 00 00 00 (Length of optional Creator data)
Length of the Creator-specific data chunk- zero if there is no creator-specific data.
0030-003F: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
Reserved space- at present all must be zero.
Apple II For Windows
File Extension (A4W/*.A4W) - This image is 143388 bytes in size, and is a proprietary format used solely by the Apple II Emulator for Windows. According to the "Apple II Emulator for Windows" help file this format adds a file header separated from the data section of the disk-image by two bytes with value 26 (1Ah). This binary format is used to store non copy-protected images. This format is used solely by the Apple II Emulator for Windows, and is recognised by a .A4W extension. Since no FTP sites store disk-images in A4W format, there is currently no need for a program to convert A4W back to DO or NDO formats.
On the MACINTOSH - There is currently no way to convert either from or to A4W on the Macintosh.
On the PC - Follow the instructions under the 'Disk II Diskette File Format' heading in the "Apple II Emulator for Windows" help file.
File Extension (*.APP) - This is a proprietary format created by the TrackStar Card for the PC, which can read actual Apple disks. The image can store either 40 or 80 tracks (the 80 track version is similar to NDO images, allowing information for duplicating protected software).
Dalton Disk Disintegrator
File Extension (DDD) - DDD is compression utility on the Apple, capable of archiving both files and entire disks. The Apple 2000 emulator on the Amiga can decompress and compress DDD disk-images (allowing compatibility with the Apple). Further information on this format is available in the "Apple 2000.doc" file included with the Apple 2000 package. DDD disk archives are not compatible with ShrinkIt SDK disk archives.
File Extension (IIE/*.IIE) - This image is generally 143390 bytes in size, and is a proprietary format used solely by the SimSystem IIE emulator. According to "SIMIIE.DOC" this format adds a 30 byte header to the binary and GCR disk-images (none of the other formats possess a header) and adjusts the interleaving of the binary disk-image from DOS3.3 to raw hardware format. This image can also store GCR format - "disk data in its purest GCR encoded format, the same way it is stored on a real Apple II...which makes this format suitable for many copy-protection methods used on Apple II products." GCR format files will vary in length - usually greater than 200K. Since no FTP sites store disk-images in IIE format, there is currently no need for a program to convert IIE back to DO or NDO formats.
On the MACINTOSH - There is currently no way to convert either from or to IIE on the Macintosh.
On the PC - Use "Dsk2iie" to convert disks from DO format to IIE format. SimIIe utilities, including "dsk2iie", are available in the "sim2du10.zip" archive released by Galen C. Hunt <email@example.com>.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/simiie/sim2du10.zip (contains "dsk2iie")
Copy II+ 7.1 Image
File Extension (IMG/*.IMG) - This image is 143360 bytes in size. It is not compatible with DO or PO disks of equivalent size. This format is created using Central Point's Copy II+ 7.1, and selecting 'Copy', 'Disk', and then any 5.25" source drive to any 3.5" target drive or RAM volume. Copy II+ will then prompt for an image filename. For some reason ONLY Copy II+ version 7.1 possesses the ability to write disk-images (both earlier and later versions lack this feature).
On the MACINTOSH - This image can be converted into a standard disk-image on the Macintosh using "Image Converter" by Lazarus I. Long. "Image Converter" can also turn standard DO and PO images into *.IMG for transferring disks back to the Apple.
XGS Format (XGS/*.XGS) - This image is usually 800K in size (identical to the newer 2IMG format), and is the older proprietary format used by the earlier versions of XGS. It has been superseded by the 2IMG Universal Format. It usually has the *.XGS extension. XGS images can be easily converted into 2IMG format using the XGS "Image" utilities by Matthew Conte <firstname.lastname@example.org>, or "Revival" by Thomas Fok <email@example.com>.
File Extension (*.DISK) - There are a couple of disk-image types which have not been listed here - these are generally "raw" disk-image formats with no compression as used by some of the emulators in Section 2 - and these types are not capable of conversion into standard disk-images. "Raw" disk-images of 5.25" disks will generally be 200-220K in size. According to the "Apple 2000.doc" file included with the Apple 2000 emulator, "raw" disk-images are capable of storing images of non-DOS and copy-protected disks.
Apple Program Files
File Extension (*.PROG) - Unlike disk-images, which simulate the structure of an Apple disk, some emulators are capable of running Apple software without the disk-image itself. The "Apple 2000" emulator on the Amiga does this with single executable files (so software with multiple data files will not work). Filenames with a *.PROG suffix become executable files; these are single files that were runnable from Apple DOS 3.3/ProDOS and did not require any disk access thereafter. These files now do not even require booting any Apple disk and are simply loaded into the appropriate Apple memory areas and instantly started. Alternatively, the Linux "ProDOS Emulator" uses a directory on the Unix system as a simulated drive (Slot 7, Drive 1) - thus eliminating the need for disk-images. With the ProDOS files (such as BASIC.SYSTEM or SHRINKIT) in the same directory as the emulator; the current directory appears within the emulator as a disk named /UNIX at S7,D1.
The disk-image concept is used for a variety of tasks beyond emulation. Mainly, they are used for software distribution since, unlike compressed archives, disk-images can retain additional information such as file allocation (FAT files on PC disks) and icon placement (on Macintosh disks). Disks duplicated from an image are identical to the original, not mere copies. The following types of distribution images are not directly intended for emulation purposes.
File Extension (*.SDK) - "Shrunk" disk-images were not originally intended for use with emulators, being a type of NuFX archive created by ShrinkIt. As opposed to a standard .SHK file which usually contains files, an .SDK file contains a whole compressed disk (for archival or transfer purposes). Unlike the similar Dalton Disk Disintegrator (DDD) archive, SDK images cannot be used directly with an emulator. The SDK image can be extracted to a disk-image under MSDOS or Unix using "Nulib" by Andy McFadden <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/nulib324.zip (PC compile version 3.24)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/nulib.zip (PC compile version 3.03)
File Extension (*.DC) - Excerpted from "Dealing with Disk Images" available on the Apple Computer WWW site: "Disk Copy is an application program that creates reliable exact copies of floppy disks from a 3.5-inch master disk or from a disk image file on your hard disk. Disk Copy is used both to create the image files from a master floppy disk, and to create duplicate floppy disks from those image files. Although there is some similarity between disks duplicated from disk images and disks copied by dragging icons, the results are not identical. Floppy disks created from image files are exact duplicates, including the exact icon placement, appearance of all windows, and the correct name of the disk." Usually Apple System Software is distributed in this format.
DiskCopy images can contain MacOS, ProDOS and MS-DOS disks of 800K and 1.44Mb size. ProDOS DiskCopy images (usually 800K) are compatible with a number of emulators including Bernie ][ The Rescue, IIe, and XGS.
WinImage/Disk Copy Fast
File Extension (*.IMA,*.IMG) - These are the MS- DOS/Microsoft Windows equivalents of the Apple DiskCopy program. WinImage files can contain 720K and 1.44Mb MS-DOS disks, and 1.44Mb MacOS disks, and are not compatible with DiskCopy. They are not used in any emulators.
Working With Disk-Images
Applications exist which allow the incorporation of single DOS 3.3 files or compressed archives - such as those found on "pure" Apple ][ FTP sites or in the Apple binary newsgroup - into existing or new disk-images. Programs such as "dsk_in" and "dsk_out" by Tom Baker <email@example.com> and "VIEWDISK" and can write Apple files into disk-images, and extract same to MSDOS files. The "Apple2 Dos Utility Package v1.0" by William Night <firstname.lastname@example.org> contains MSDOS executables for "DosStrip" and "DFormat" to copy a disk's DOS and format other disk-images with that DOS (useful for removing or replacing DOS 3.3), as well as "DiskRead" and "DiskWrit" which read and write files for disk- images. For Windows users, try "A2DSK v001" (includes source) by Jeff Miller <email@example.com>. On the Macintosh, "Apple ][ DOS 3.3 Utility v1.0.0" and "A2 Disk Edit v1.1.0" by Hideki Naito <firstname.lastname@example.org> offer the ability to transfer different types of Basic (binary and Applesoft) files as well as text files. "Image2File v1.2" is another Macintosh utility by Ron Kneusel <email@example.com> which can read Dos, ProDOS and Pascal DO and PO images. For SimSystem disk-images, use "aftp" by Galen C. Hunt <firstname.lastname@example.org> which browses, extracts and adds files to SimIIe disk (*.IIE) and hard-disk volumes (*.HDV) - part of the "sim2du10" archive. The SST package contains ANSI C, MSDOS and Amiga executables for "Extract", a file which extracts binary files from disk-images. "Extract 2" by Bob Colbert <email@example.com> is a newer version of the MS-DOS executable. Amiga users can also use "afid" by George Phillips <firstname.lastname@example.org> on DOS3.3 disk-images to catalog, read and write files (also available in C source code). "afid" is included as part of the "Apple2000" emulator package for the Amiga. By the same author, "udisk" is a program (in C source code) which can read files from ProDOS and C64 1541 disk-images. "LibA2 v0.003" by Christopher J. Madsen <email@example.com> is a perl module/script beta release of end-user utilities and library modules for accessing files on ProDOS disk-images.
These applications are of vital use to use who do not possess the ability to make disk-images on an original Apple ][; finding a single Apple file on an FTP site and using it with an emulator is no longer an insurmountable problem. Unfortunately, all of the utilities described above (except "LibA2" and "udisk") are designed only for DOS 3.3 disks and will not work on ProDOS volumes.
http://www.zipcon.com/~miller/apps/a2dsk001.zip (requires 'vbrun300.dll')
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/simiie/sim2du10.zip (contains "aftp")
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/amiga/Apple2000v13.lha (contains "afid")
To find out the contents of a disk-image without running an emulator, try "catalogger" by Kevin Lund <firstname.lastname@example.org> on the Macintosh or "dsk_cat.zip" on the PC. For SimIIe disk-images, use "aftp" by Galen C. Hunt <email@example.com> - part of the "sim2du10" archive. The SST package contains ANSI C, MSDOS and Amiga executables for "CATALOG", a file which catalogs standard DOS 3.3 images. Amiga users can also use "afid" by George Phillips <firstname.lastname@example.org> on DOS3.3 disk-images to catalog, read and write files (also available in C source code). "Afid" is included as part of the "Apple2000" emulator package for the Amiga. "LibA2 v0.003" by Christopher J. Madsen <email@example.com> is a perl module/script beta release of end-user utilities and library modules for accessing files on ProDOS disk-images.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/simiie/sim2du10.zip (contains "aftp")
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/sst.zip (contains "CATALOG")
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/amiga/Apple2000v13.lha (contains "afid")
Apple DOS/ProDOS Commands
These commands are intended for use with disk-images which contain either DOS 3.3 or any version of ProDOS. "Changing" the disk-image is equivalent to physically removing a disk from the Apple 5.25" or 3.5" drive and replacing it with another. As such, there is no DOS command to "change" a disk-image - it is a function integral to the emulator you are using (a menu command, icon or key equivalent)... Most disks use custom DOS (especially games) and will automatically boot when the computer is switched on or reset. If it comes up with a "*" prompt after boot, it means that DOS on that disk(-image) is bad, and the computer (or emulator) has entered the Assembly Language Monitor.
"All disk-related operations are controlled by a special program called the DISK OPERATING SYSTEM, or DOS. BASIC transmits requests to DOS for any operation involving the disk. The DOS returns the results to BASIC." ('Apple II User's Guide' p.164) Several versions of DOS exist for the Apple. DOS 3.2 used 13 sector per disk; DOS 3.3 used 16. Filenames under DOS 3.3 could be from 1 to 30 characters in length (comprising any uppercase keyboard character - including spaces and excepting commas). DOS 3.3 cannot accept lower-case commands (so remember to press CAPS LOCK on ][+ machines and emulators) and does not support sub-directories. ProDOS similarly uses uppercase filenames but they are restricted to 15 characters, lowercase commands and sub-directories are accepted. Both DOS 3.3 and ProDOS use the "]" prompt. DOS 3.3 also uses the ">" prompt for Integer BASIC programs.
For a comprehensive guide to the Apple II operating system, try the "Apple II DOS & Commands FAQ" by Nathan Mates
A partial list of commands follows: BLOAD - Loads a machine language (binary) file. BRUN - Executes a machine language (binary) file. BSAVE - Saves a machine language (binary) file. BYE (ProDOS only) - Exits BASIC.SYSTEM. CAT (ProDOS only) - Abbreviated 40-column catalog giving a list of files, file type, size in blocks and last modification date. Some common ProDOS file type are given below: SYS - System executable TXT - Text file BAS - Applesoft BASIC program (executable) BIN - Machine language (binary) file CATALOG - Under ProDOS, it provides an 80-column listing giving a list of files, file type, size in blocks, modification and creation dates, endfile data and subtype. Under DOS 3.3 it produces a list of files, file type, size in sectors (1 - 255) and disk label. Common DOS 3.3 file types are given below: A - AppleSoft BASIC programs B - Binary image (machine language) files I - Integer BASIC programs T - Text files R - Relocatable binary S - Source * - File is locked (protected from modification/deletion) CREATE (ProDOS only) - Creates sub-directories. DELETE - Deletes UNLOCKED files. The command can specify slot, drive or volume number (DOS 3.3) or volume prefix (ProDOS); otherwise it assumes the file is in the current directory. EXEC - Executes a text file; any text file containing a BASIC program will be automatically input as though it was typed. Direct commands will be executed. Thus BASIC programs can be more easily entered into a text-editor and then EXECuted on an Apple, and then saved. INIT - Initializes a disk under DOS 3.3, with a greeting program of choice (typically named HELLO). Usage INIT HELLO. LOAD - Loads an AppleSoft BASIC (or Integer BASIC under DOS 3.3) file. LOCK - Locks a file. PREFIX (ProDOS only) - Changes sub-directory. RENAME - Renames files. Usage RENAME OLDNAME,NEWNAME under DOS 3.3. RUN - Executes an AppleSoft or Integer BASIC program under DOS 3.3; AppleSoft only under ProDOS (which does not support Integer BASIC). To execute any ProDOS filetype, use the "-" character instead of RUN or BRUN. SAVE - Saves an AppleSoft BASIC file. Since it is saved into a "tokenised" format (ie. AppleSoft reserved words are replaced by ASCII codes or "tokens") the BASIC files are not plain text. To reverse the EXEC command and produce a plain text copy of a BASIC file; place the following line in the BASIC program and RUN: 0 TEXT:PRINT CHR$(21):HOME:POKE 33,33:PRINT CHR$(4);"OPEN filename.txt":PRINT CHR$(4);"WRITE filename.txt":LIST 1,63999:PRINT CHR$(4);"CLOSE filename.txt":TEXT:END (suggested by Dave Althoff, Jr. <firstname.lastname@example.org>). UNLOCK - Unlocks the file. VERIFY - Verifies file (under DOS 3.3, it recalculates the checksum for each sector of the file). ***************************************************************************
The respective documents for each emulator are in their archive package. The Apple ][ documents I mentioned (and related items of interest) are listed alphabetically below:
"Apple2 Emulation Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) (version 2.5.1)" by James Vera <email@example.com> and Tom Baker <firstname.lastname@example.org>. This was the original Frequently Asked Questions List for comp.emulators.apple2; dated June 12, 1994.
'Apple II User's Guide' by Lon Poole with Martin McNiff & Steven Cook. (c) 1981 OSBORNE/McGraw-Hill, 630 Bancroft Way, Berkeley, California 94710, USA. ISBN 0-931988-46-2. Exerpts are quoted without permission.
"AppleUni FAQ" is a compilation of E-Mail questions from Peter Pauen and was prepared by Andrew J. Kroll <email@example.com>. The FAQ is included in the AppleUni archive (see "AppleUni" in Chapter 2 of this FAQ).
"COMP.SYS.APPLE2 - FAQ" by Nathan Mates <firstname.lastname@example.org>; this FAQ appears regularly on comp.sys.apple2.
"The Official XGS FAQ (version 1.3)" by Matthew Conte <email@example.com>.
For a list of general emulators (listed by platform/processor emulation), try:
"COMP.EMULATORS.MISC Frequently Asked Questions" by Adam Roach <firstname.lastname@example.org>; this FAQ appears regularly on comp.emulators.misc.
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